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New Books by Ukrainian Centre for Holocaust Studies in Co-operation with Anne Frank House
In summer 2007 the Centre published two books in frames of the international project Holocaust and Tolerance Education in Ukraine.
The first one is the textbook Lessons of the Past. History of the Holocaust in Ukraine by Anatoly Podolsky.
The textbook is aimed at students of 10-11th grades of Ukrainian comprehensive schools and covers the complex page of Ukrainian history in the XX century: history of WWII in Ukraine, namely the fate of Ukrainian Jews under the Nazi occupation (1941-1944). It broaches history of the Holocaust in Ukraine part of the European Holocaust history the terrible total WWII genocide of the Jewish people in all European Nazi-occupied countries (1939-1945). We hope that this textbook will be interesting and useful to the students of Ukrainian secondary schools. Especially considering the fact that the Holocaust was included by the Ukrainian Ministry of Education into the curriculum as a part of Ukrainian History course and World History course, subchapter History of WWII. The full text can be downloaded here.
The second book is the Glossary The Holocaust in Ukraine (1941-1944), editor M.Tyagliy. It is already the second edition, added and corrected. As the first one, this edition is also aimed at educators, students, and scholars working with Holocaust Studies and Holocaust Teaching. The book is an attempt to generalize the terminology to the topic The Holocaust in Ukraine, 1941-1944. The glossary contains 407 notions and terms. The full text is available here.
Rachel Auerbach On the Fields of Treblinka
On the Fields of Treblinka by Rachel Auerbach is a book of memoirs, reflections of a person who witnessed the tragedy of Warsaw Ghetto, saw the Nazi death camp in the Polish village of Treblinka in November 1945 and has worked for Yad Vashem Museum (Jerusalem) for over thirty years after the war. The present book is a translation of the first publication in Yiddish in 1947. It is the first time the memoirs appear in Ukrainian. The publication was done by Ukrainian Centre for Holocaust Studies in frames of the series Ukrainian Library of the Holocaust under financial support of The Rothschild Foundation Europe.
Treblinkathis geographic name as many others became a terrible post-war symbol of the extermination of European Jewry. R. Auerbach described what she saw there and her book became one of the first striking documents of the Holocaust history in Europe. After publication in Yiddish in 1947 the book appeared in Polish, Hebrew, English. This is the first publication of the book On the Fields of Treblinka in Ukrainian.
Presentation of this edition will take place in Kyiv on June 4, 2007 at 18.00 on the premises of Kyiv Jewish Community. The Ukrainian text is available on the web-site of Ukrainian Centre for Holocaust Studies in the option Publications (sub-option our publications).
Documents on Jewish History and Culture in Kyiv Archives
Duh i Litera publishing house brought out a guide on Kyiv archival documents concerning Jewish History and Culture. The publication was done in frames of the Project Judaica, director D.Fishman. Composed and edited by Y. Melamed, M. Kupovetsky.
This guide is the first in series to be published in frames of international project Documents on Jewish History and Culture in Russian, Ukrainian, and Byelorussian archives. The first volume includes the fullest data found in the funds, collections, and archives of Kyiv institutes, museums, and libraries. The gathered information concerns mostly Jewish history and culture of XVI-XX centuries.
The foreword brings forward hard story of Jewish documents. For example, the so-called I. Cherikover archive was transported to Germany in 1921 (as far as possible from the Soviet regime), smuggled to Vilnius in 1925 where most of it was lost during World War II. Second part of the archive was send from Berlin to Paris, where S.Fridman saved it. Many documents were destroyed in the Holocaust. The only drawback of the book is total absence of Ukrainian text it is done only in Russian (though presence of English).
A White Stone from the Black Torture-House
In Uzhgorod, in Olexander Garkusha publishing house, a book on Paraimas was brought out. This is one of the first editions in Ukraine dedicated to the topic of Paraimas the tragedy of Roma during WWII. The book A White Stone from the Black Torture-House is a collection of memoirs of Transcarpathian Roma that was edited by Y.Navrotsky and Y.Zeikan, translated into Roma language by Aladar Adam. The first part of the book is in Ukrainian, the second in Roma language. The edition was prepared by Uzhgorod Centre for Romology in frames of the project Civic Education: Human Rights and Minorities supported by the Department for Press, Education and Culture of the Embassy of the USA in Ukraine. It is the first chance for Ukrainian reader to get acquainted with horrible but important memories of Roma. Especially interesting is the fact that there were armed Roma who fought for Carpathian Ukraine Unfortunately, the circulation of this significant book is only 200 samples to be obtained in Uzhgorod Centre for Romology.
Other Germans
Jewish Book publishing house (Moscow 2006) with the financial support of Die Schwelle, Beitraege zur Friedensarbeit (Bremen) brought out a book of S. Madievski Other Germans. Resistance of the Rescuers in the Third Reich.
The book is one of the first (After The Banality of Good by Y.Berkovich) Russian-language works dedicated to the Germans who saved Jews. As is known, this topic was not broached in the countries of the former USSR (with the exception of Baltic states). S. Madievski gives a lot of stories, surnames, and situations. He tries to find his way in the psychology of the rescuers, notes that they were venturing a lot, though not that much as in the east of Europe. S.Madievski writes: People of such type were characterized by sympathy for the oppressed, empathy the loss of which by millions of other Germans became, according to T. Adorno, one of the psychological conditions for the Holocaust to happen.
The author gives most interesting facts about Hans Munch who was a doctor in Auschwitz, helped the prisoners and was eventually pardoned by a Polish court. The book mentions well-known names of Germans-Righteous Among the Nations Oscar Schindler (and how his wife Emilia helped him), Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz, Anton Schmid, Maria von Maltzan and less famous personalia. There are also photos of the heroes. At the same time S.Madievski mentions how hard it was for them in post-war Germany and how some of their widows do not mention the struggle of their husbands with Nazism being afraid of hostility from their neighbours. Some other special information includes reports about whole groups of rescuers (e.g. Uncle Emil ) who had to be in touch with many other Germans and yet no-one betrayed them. The motto of Helmreich rescue family was It is better for children to have dead parents than cowardly parents
One of the most crucial quotations from the book is no soldier, polizei, gendarme, or SS-man was executed for refusing to take part in killing Jews. Post-war claims that refusal would cause immediate executions were, as German historians prove, nothing more than a desire to justify ones behaviour.
The circulation of 1000 samples is very strange for Russia, but we are very grateful to the author who presented 20 books to our Centre.
Dead Water History from Horror Tale to Big Policy. Political Neo Paganism in Post-Soviet Russia.
In Germany in Dr. Andreas Umlands seriesSoviet and Post-Soviet Politics and Society (ibidem-Verlag) a book by Eugeniy Moroz Dead Water History from Horror Tale to Big Policy. Political Neo Paganism in Post-Soviet Russia (2005, Stuttgart). Though the book does not touch the Holocaust directly, Neo- pagans Nazi borrowings and open anti-Semitism as well as neo-paganism expansion in Ukraine make this book a part of our studies. Unfortunately, Nazis story had a little effect on some part of our society. These people continue borrowing of the old and hackneyed Nazi ideas (by the way rejecting the right for nationality of Ukrainians and Russians). As we know, the false Veles Book is not only widely distributed by Ukrainian publishers, but also is a part of curriculum of many Ukrainian universities. In any case so it was several years ago according to the Kritika magazine publications.
The book considers phenomenon that appeared in Russian politics and culture in the 70-ies of the previous century the antichristian Russian movement. The author gives very interesting facts.
Some V. Yemelyanov, one of the pathologic anti-Semites, was treated in a psychiatric hospital for the murder of his wife! It was in 1980, but conditions of stayin the Serbskiy hospital were increasingly comfortable Nevertheless, activities of V.Yemelyanov continue still: he is the head of the group issuing the Russkaya Pravda /The Russian Truth/ newspaper.
We think there is no need to quote the nonsense written by many neopagans.
However, what is important (in Ukrainian and CIS context) is that many of those people not only have the degrees of Professors and PhDs, but are also supported by the government. Therefore, anti-scientific and anti-humane books are published in enormous numbers and blessed by high academic degrees. It turns out, that these writings are presented to the society as high science.
According to authors words, the Church of Navi, Union of Veneds, Party of Venedic Socialism are among the open Hitler fans. Much of the words and pronouncements of such parties and unions could have been ignored, but for the small fact that the Concept Party Yedineniye raised 710 000 votes on the Russian elections. E.Moroz writes: Adepts of the Dead water theory are easily singled out by their love for nationalistic and anti-Semitic fantasies It is strange that among them there are many former associates of the Soviet special services. Or maybe it is rather natural?
At the same time, we think that author himself is a bit influenced by the magic views on the almightiness of some seen or unseen rulers. We think that the expression like Kremlin rulers without any explanation is a result of certain psychological influence. You cannot accuse the abstract Putin group of all the perils of Russia. Just as you cannot trust that it is the only centre ruling the giant country. It is too often, we believe, that the issues of psychic and psychological condition of the society and separate individuals are shifted in Russia to the government.
Among the drawbacks of the book we see extra politisation of the issue. Moreover, the reference list has no footnotes to the books dedicated to the Nazi ideology, though the author says neopagans take a lot from there. In this discourse we would like the modern neo-Nazi and national-socialist ideology to be treated in more detail.
Arthur Fredekind
The Discourse of Hatred
The Transitkniga publishing house (Moscow) brought out a book The Discourse of Hatred by Andre Glucksmann (the book prepared for publishing by Midgard publishing house, St. Petersburtg, 2006).
The French philosopher of Jewish descend A. Glucksmann has long and not in vain been considered a dissident. Every time he broaches very tense topics and offers rather sharp explanations of the contemporary events. Unsurprisingly for a democratic state, he is most down on his motherland, France. Moreover, he criticizes harshly the Western society and its modern moods. It is hard to agree with the author on many points; whatsoever, he is very sincere. Speaking about Chechnya issues, the philosopher writes about V.Putin: Europe and the USA give him the card-blanche arguing for his friendship. Amazing craziness. Whatever the attitude to the present Russian government may be, one should agree with the author that the problems created by the Soviet army in Afghanistan seem a trifle compared to the possible problems in Chechnya. A. Glucksmann quotes Said Bachouddin Madzhrukh: Soviet invasion ruined the country as nothing before had. Prisons, mass executions, destruction of villages, setting fire to the crops the strategies of terror having the only aim of imposing the pax sovietica, similar to the cemetery peace
The philosopher also compares Nazi and modern nihilism and its principles. Auschwitz is a deliberate, openly undertaken search for self-destruction. Very accurately A. Glucksmann writes: Auschwitz is not a natural catastrophe, not the Gods punishment, not the choice of the martyr-nation, - it is a German industry. And then the author quotes Imre Kertes: One should once take a while to analyze the discontent making the modern intelligentsia despise mind; one should try to trace the intellectual history of the hatred of intellect. I believe this is especially true for Ukraine: Qualified sociologists, learned geo politicians and strategy researchers read too little, being stuck in their field By too little I mean little of classical literature, of writers and historians.
The philosopher puts forward some of the very interesting opinions about hatred, today being more than ever a part of our world. A.Glucksmann says that the modern world has too many descriptions of love and relaxation, but too little is written about hatred. Hesiodis, the great poet of the beginnings, tells us about the bottomless abyss, out of which the night rises. And out of the night, multiplying by nocuous division, descend the children of the night dark sides of being, too often unseen, but always present.
Hatred is stronger than love, because love is a hostage to its object that it may lose: a child, a woman, honour, money
Describing the modern issues of anti-Semitism, anti-Americanism in the uncivilised and civilised world, A.Glucksmann writes: Tutsi genocideand its survivors dying of AIDS. Thousands of Chechens slaughtered over a decade. Negroes and Christians of Sudan. The litany of the beaten and forgotten nation is long. Their outrageous forsakenness is too universal and too sequential to be reasonless, - it is no accident. But for some reason the Palestine problem enjoys the prime time of the world television.
Europeans (especially modern French and Germans) express the viewpoint of a EU ambassador, whose words are cited by the philosopher it is much better for Europe to have its Jews back. This way the destruction of Israel is propagated and the consequent return of the Jews to Europe. But not in the quality of Israelis, rather like some strange minority, easy to use for ones purposes.
The author also suggests interesting contemplations about anti-Semitism. The key to anti-Semitism is not in the Jew, it is in the anti-Semite. Quoting J-P Sartre: Anti-Semite is a frightful person. He is afraid not of Jews, most surely. But of himself and his conscienceIn one world, anti-Semitism is the fright of the human being.
I feel that the following ideas of the author are also of utmost importance: While the world conscience preaches that humanity is united and indivisible, someone uncontrollable threatens by reminding that before one should accurately count: 1) those who perished in gas chambers; 2) those, who forced them in there; 3) those, who averted their eyes and let all that happen. Very precise idea, I believe. Remembrance of the Holocaust is the most important composite for actual analysis of the events happening on planet Earth. Then the author stresses: The Kingdom of world conscience is a pious lies. Liberal speeches about it (in the style of Kandidus and Voltaire) are more than immoral. It is sheer escapism, escapism from the tragic life, deceit of the future generations.
The author also provides an outlook on the modern attitudes in France. Not the street, but university attitudes: A Frenchman of Maghrib descent does not have to account for the decisions made by Morocco, Algerian of Tunis governments Whereas A New-York or Paris intellectual of Jewish descent has his hands in Palestinian blood, if only he does not praise Y.Arafat and curse A. Sharon.
Such talks cannot be stopped by the acquitting Jews speeches. Because such speeches evoke a certain psychological reaction described by V.Yankelevich: For the accuser the acquitting efforts of the accused are a mortal sin, the sin deep in the roots, touching the basis of his individuality the sin of being. That is why the struggle against anti-Semitism should be based not on the attempts to enumerate Jews-Heroes of USSR, but on the easy answers to those, who are afraid of Jews. Shakespeares Shylock crying that he is human cries in vain, writes Glucksmann. Do not be surprised if you impose terror on someone, who wants to be a non-human! Since, the philosopher continues, an anti-Semite wants to be the God.
A.Glucksmann quotes E.Wiesel: Over two thousand years have the Jewish people been living in uncertainty, now the uncertainty expanded to any societyIn other words, the conditions of Jewish life are now universal Once cannot forget the views of M.Heidegger he expressed in 1942. The thoughts pro-Nazi in their anti-Americanism and, what is more, absolutely modern in this anti-Americanism. A.Glucksmann states: It is beyond doubt that Jews, women, Americans these are imperfect creatures. But no more than all other people. To my mind, intolerance to the imperfect people is one of the main traits of the modern conscience. That is why the European community becomes more and more individual, more and more lonesome.
Then, France is absolutely outstanding in its forgetfulness, even compared to other countries of the world. The French, one of the most nationalist peoples in Europe, are so respectful of their language (which is nice) and at the same time so forgetful about their mistakes and crimes. A.Glucksmann writes about France: Over 40 years not a single of the militarymen who used tortures during the war in Algeria was accused, tried or sentenced.
A.Glucksmann proves the absurdity of anti-Americanism underpinned, say, by hatred of McDonalds. McDonalds is only 4% of the world fast food business! Let us look carefully at the words of J.Reveille, who wrote about the sources of European anti-Americanism: it were Europeans who made the XX century the darkest century of the times Probably, it is offence at themselves and understanding of their incompetence that pushes Europeans towards anti-Americanism and anti-Semitism.
At the same time, neither Europe nor Russia take notice of Afghanistan issues, even though (as it was mentioned before) the sources of Talibs and terrorism are just too familiar. Forsakenness of the memory about the Holocaust, banal attitudes to the tragedy bring about the discourse of hatred, irresponsibility and new genocide. I hope that the book will find its reader.
Arthur Fredekind

Anne Applebaum GULAG: A History
Kyiv-Mohyla Academy publishing house issued the book GULAG: A History by Anne Applebaum (translation by Andrew Ishchenko). The presentation of the book in Kyiv was done in April, and I can say a few words about the book and about the author, who is a member of the editorial board of the Washington Post.
On the presentation A.Applebaum was very precise in her words. I will try to convey her theses adding my commentary. She spoke a lot about uniqueness of different genocides, which must not be piled up into the common pile of murders, because general issues of death make a separate problem. At the same time, they are all terribly alike. Because you do not haggle over the number of the dead or take pride in the mere fact of surviving a genocide. Tortures do not add courage they cripple, and that is true. Wars and genocide will happen again, because people are people. We have to know about them to be able to stop them if not in the beginning, then at least before it is too late. We have to know the darker side of human nature, because all that has been done by people. People just like us. GULAG influenced people of the Soviet Union too universally: furniture, armor, toys all this until the 60s had been produced by the convicts. The crimes of Stalin and his crew make us forget it all. Because there are no photo or video data reminding us of those crimes. As there are no museums on those places, while concentration camps were not only in the Siberia, but all over the Soviet Union.
I think that the most striking parts of the book are the lyrical entries of the author. For example, when she describes the present forsaken dilapidated condition of Belomor-Baltic Canal, stressing the senselessness of that project. It is hard for the people whose parents had built that stuff to agree to this fact. At the same time modern youth smirks saying these people were cowards who did not think of resistance. The co-operation will become possible only when the parents admit their mistakes and the new generation gets what it is like when you are taken out of your bed in the middle of the night, brought to the prison cell, and then merely beaten up or raped. And it is done not just to you, but to the millions of people. Language of the author is simple and interesting. That is because she writes not in order to get a degree or a position. She writes for other people to read and understand.
Connections between GULAG and the history of totalitarianism are obvious. Moreover, there are certain cases pointing its connection to the Holocaust. Among the examples we can mention the case described in A.Applebaums book by Hava Volovich. After 1945 Olexander Klein, an officer of the Red Army, was one of the convicts. He was Jewish and it is only by luck that he survived in the German captivity. He recalls his investigation: Suddenly the major rose up and asked: Can you prove you are Jewish? I blushed and said that I can prove it if I take off the pants. Then the major: -And you are telling me the Germans did not know you are Jewish?

-Believe me, if they did, I would not have been standing here.
- You, bloody Yid, - he shouted and kicked me at the bottom of my stomach so hard that I gasped and fell. You are lying How much did they pay you, you, mercenary?

O.Klein got 25 years of penal servitude. It is quite obvious that this case cannot be separated from the history of the Holocaust. Leave alone the Jewish convicts in times of the struggle against cosmopolitism. The same concerns arrests of the Jewish refugees from Poland in 1939. In his memoirs Janush Bardach (a Jewish teenager) recollects that those arrests were hardly different from the Nazis attitude over the border. Head of the NKVD by name Gennadiy shouted at the Jews: Fascist spies! Then, enraged by the child crying, he rose the boy in the air, held for a second looking at his face, and then smashed him at the wall
In the epilogue A. Applebaum writes: If the villains of the old regime stay unpunished, there can be no victory of the good.
The author gives much attention to the governmental and household anti-Semitism in the USSR. At the same time, I believe not enough attention was given to the national deportations, though she mentions Chechens, Crimean Tatars, Germans, and Poles. Much is spoken about Ukraine. Among the surnames of the convicts mentioned in the book we come across many names of Jewish origin.
The 15th chapter called Women and Children should be read from the very beginning to feel all the terror of GULAG.
Coming back to our topic, A.Applebaum writes in the foreword: Even though GULAG and Auschwitz refer to the same intellectual and historical tradition, they are unique and different from each other and the camp systems created by other regimes When reading the memories of the Nazi and Soviet camp survivors one notices rather differences in their experiences than differences between the two camp systems. Every history has its unique features and every camp has its unique tortures for various people. In Germany one could perish because of the atrocities of the guards, in Russia because of despair. In Auschwitz one could perish in a gas chamber, in Kolyma freeze in the snow. One could die in a German forest or in a Russian steppe, get killed in a mining accident or die in a cattle carriage. But in the longrun the history of the country was the history of the certain people.
Arthur Fredekind
And Rose We Side by Side
The Byelorussian Museum of Jewish History and Culture, State Byelorussian Archive, Republican foundation Holocaust published in the Asobny Dah house (Minsk) a book And Rose We Side by SideJews in Byelorussian Partisan Movement. 1941-1944. The composer of the book is the director of the Museum, Dr. I.Gerasimova; the editor Dr. Y.Baranovskiy. The book has a collection on of thousands of names of Jewish partisans. Moreover, it presents some interesting documents of the World War II period (In Byelorussia it is still referred to as The Great War for Motherland), namely those concerning anti-Semitism in partisan groups and among Byelorussians in general.
Despite some of the typically Soviet clichs and Soviet approach to the heroic resistance issues, the book can be characterized positively. Once in a while one may come across phrases about WWII and the facts like execution of catholic priests by Germans for their helping Jews. Knowing the state of affairs in Byelorussia we can only praise the composer and the publisher who still managed to show different aspects of the Holocaust. The circulation of 500 samples and absence of sponsor-gratitude let us assume that this time it happened without the almighty president of the country. We are grateful to our colleagues for introducing the new facts and documents into the academic use.
General Vlasov
Eksmo publishing house (Moscow) let out a book by Sven Steenberg General Vlasov. Translated by A.Kolin, edited by S.Drobyasko. The first edition of Steenberg was done in 1970. His biography of A.Vlasov is a literary description of the historical events. The German researcher obviously tries to approve Russian Liberation Army (or. abbr. ROA). But if in 1970s the book was of great interest, today the ideological anti-Soviet and anti-American motives of the author are too eye-catching. One of the ambiguous points in the book is that the author considers ROA and other Nazi-collaborating forces, but does not mention a word about the Holocaust.
Talking about major M.Zykov and his Jewish descend the author once again ignores the policies of the Nazi towards Jews. It is quite clear that at that time the issue of the Holocaust was known in the West, but not to the extent of non-mentioning it at all. Moreover, when the book is published today and in Russia, the editorial board should have made at least some references to the fate of Jews on the Nazi-occupied territories. According to the author the very murder of M.Zykov by Gestapo is also not connected to the anti-Jewish Nazi policies. Dealing with the various nuances of Vlasovs collaboration and conflicts with the Nazi, the author again does not mention the movements attitude to the Jewish question.
Only at the end, when the Reich suffered defeats, Steenberg gives a script of the Zhilenkovs (a representative of Committee for Liberation of Russian Nations) talk to the foreign journalists in Bratislava. The journalists asked him about the Jewish question and he answered, that In Russia there is no special Jewish question needing any solutions.
The book also mentions negotiations of A.Vlasov and S.Bandera, but incredibly superficially. The author describes ruthless handing on of the cossacks and their families to the Soviet army, handing on of the Russian emigrants to the USSR. The tragedy of these people is horrible. But at the same time the book does not mention ferocities of Kamenskiy brigade in Warsaw, or of other collaborators. So here we have a certain kind of selectiveness of the facts. On the other hand, the reasons for sympathizing with the people who strived for changing of the regime in USSR are quite sufficient.
We Got Caught Unawares Existing
Duh i Litera publishing house let out a book The Uncombed Thoughts by Stanislav Ezi Lets. Translated by A.Pavlishin. Responsible for the edition: L.Finberg, K.Sigov. The edition made possible owing to the support of the Polish Book Institute.
Stanislav Ezi Lets was a Lviv-born Polish satirist, who during the War was stuffed into the concentration camp in Ternopil as a Jew, escaped it in German uniform speaking immaculate German, was a partisan in Lublin region; after the war he was a press-attach of the national Poland in Vienna, from there escaped to Israel, in two years returned to Poland (1952! Stalin was still alive!), was considered a renegade and died there, in the motherland, in 1966 He wrote short but very sophisticated in sense aphorisms, what they call fraskas in Poland. Jotted them down on the sleeves, napkins, who knows where else. When he was asked what was he writing, Ezi Lets answered: Im writing myself, my diary. The effect of Talmud and Hassidic tales on him is incontestable. The writer personifies the powerful spirit and Resistance of both Jewish and Polish nations to the Nazi. Moreover, we can imagine the rainy days of Israel of the time when it did not manage to support the writer, the tragedy of separated Jewish families the wife and daughter of Lets stayed in Israel. The fraskas are endowed with the Jewish perception and the issue of anti-Semitism. Poor guy Hitler, he thought anti-Semitism could be used only for national-socialism
I want to tease everybody a bit, just like Lets did, as the struggle for the freedom of speech never ends and I dont believe pogroms to be the normal reaction to a joke. As a character of M.Zakharov once said: All the mean stuff has been done with serious faces. Smile! That is why I want to end with an aphorism of Stanislav Ezi Lets: Even the Prophets beard can be shaved off!
Arthur Fredekind
Educating a Human and a Citizen
All-Ukrainian Association of Teachers of History and Social Sciences Nova Doba, Anna Frank House (the Netherlands), publishing house Vidrodzhennya published a manual guide Educating a Human and a Citizen. Co-ordinators of the project our colleagues O.Voitenko (Nova Doba) and N.Hinterleitner (Anna Frank House). Our Centre also took an active part in creation of the manual. Proving this, is an article of Dr. Anatoly Podolsky History of the Holocaust as Teaching Dignity and Democracy and references to the literature sources published by our Centre. A guide for the history and social science teachers comprises materials which can be used in course of Ukrainian and World history teaching in 9-11 grades of the comprehensive and other schools. It emphasises Human Rights and Tolerance, supplies great methodical innovations of our colleagues.
The event should be greeted even despite the low circulation and the fact that publication was only made possible owing to the finance from the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports of the Netherlands Kingdom. The circulation is a 1000 samples, which will hardly be enough even for those teachers having attended seminars on the issue. As far as we understand, our country does not favour education of either a Human or a Citizen. The situation to be hopefully changed.
"Duh i Litera" publishing house in Kyiv, Centre of European Humanitarian Research, National University "Kyiv-Mohyla Academy", Institute for Jewish Studies under the support of the Department for Press, Education, and Culture of the USA Embassy in Ukraine have published the book by Elie Wiesel "Night. Dawn. Day". Responsible for the edition are K.Sigov and L.Finberg. It is the first time that the "Night" - story of the Holocaust - is published in Ukrainian (translation by V. Kadenko). Same could be said about other parts of the trilogy - "Dawn" (tr. by Y.Kononenko) and "Day" (tr. by V. Kadenko). Elie Wiesel, a Holocaust survivor, is the most popular and known writer on the topic.
We need to emphasise, that it is the first time in 50 years that Ukrainian reader can read E.Wiesel, the Nobel Prize winner. We would also like to appreciate the help of the American Embassy.
All questions concerning order and purchase of the book should be directed to the address: (editorial board); or (sales department).
"Ukrainian Slaves of the Third Reich (past and present)", "This Pain in Heart Does not Grow Less"
On initiative of the Ukrainian National Foundation on Mutual Understanding and Reconciliation at the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine the two books have been recently published in "Kalvaria" publishing house, Lviv. Both of them were printed in two languages: Ukrainian and German. Sergiy Baturin and Alla Kravchenko are the authors of the first publicist chronicle; Lubov Sochka, Svitlana Postrigan, and Oksana Nikolaychouk have translated the book into German. The edition gives vast information on Nazi Germany politics, its anti-Semitic composite included. The book also has an outline of the Fund's activities, a description of the work of B.Zabarko, head of All-Ukrainian Association of Jews- Former Prisoners of Ghettos and Nazi Concentration Camps. Comprises memoirs of ostarbeiters.
The absence of table of contents is a bit surprising. On the other hand we have information on the sums of money transferred by Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and private companies of these countries to help our citizens. The book gives the stories of former ostarbeiters, who after 1945 became victims of "SMERSH" ("Death to Spies" organisation) and Soviet concentration camps. Naturally, they did not get any apologies or compensations for it.
The second book is a collection of pupils' works. In those that can be considered academic, one may find strange episodes. For example, despite mentioning the Tragedy of the Jewish nation, the word "Holocaust" is never seen. At the same time they mention the deportations of "Russian" Germans. In general, there appears a feeling that the book was done especially for some separate and prepared audience.
Places of Mass Extermination of Crimean Jews in the Period of Nazi Occupation of the Peninsula (1941-1944)
Famous Holocaust researcher Mikhail Tyaglyi developed and published a directory "Places of Mass Extermination of Crimean Jews in the Period of Nazi Occupation of the Peninsula (1941-1944)". The edition is a full-scale academic directory. It consists of the concept article on the fate of Crimean Jews during W.W.II, in the context of Holocaust in Ukraine and Europe; and the data based on the archive materials. The articles structured on geographical basis give information on the stages of Nazi genocide of Jews; places, dates, and methods of extermination; occupation extermination divisions; people in charge of the crimes; numbers of the victims. The publication by Mikhail Tyaglyi is a significant contribution into the Ukrainian historical study and historiography of the Holocaust in Ukraine.
Places of Dolour
In 2005 the famous history teacher, researcher from Lviv, Illya Kabanchik developed and published two brochures "Places of Dolour", dedicated to the places of extermination of Jews in Volyn and Ternopyl regions (Places of Dolour. (Ternopyl Region).-Lviv.-2005; Places of Dolour (Volyn Region).-Lviv.-2005). Alongside with these brochures they printed also maps of the mentioned regions, showing the actual places of mass executions and memorials on the sites. These editions area part of the project of memorialisation of the mass execution sites of the Western Ukraine. The project was financed by Vaad of Ukraine and later by the Jewish Agency for Israel "Sohnut". In 2002-2004 in terms of the mentioned project Illya Kabanchik issued alike publications on Lviv and Ivano-Frankivs'k regions.
Under the Foe's Flags
The "EXMO" publishing house brought out a new book by famous author S.I.Drobyasko "Under the Foe's Flags: Anti-Soviet Units-Components of German Military Forces, 1941-1945". The author refers to a book by A. Bolyanovsky "Ukrainian Military Units in German Forces", which he considers one of the best in collaboration studies literature. The author puts forward an interesting view of Hitler's attitude to Cossack units. S. Drobyasko believes that "leaders of Cossacks-independence seekers" managed to convince their German friends that they are descendants of Ost-Goths, consequently not Slavs, but people of Germanic roots. The author also notes the mass scale of collaboration in USSR. Moreover, he speaks about history of the battalions "Nachtigal" and "Roland", saying they were actually dismissed from the fronts after the Nazis had arrested S.Bandera and therefore, did not take part in military action or actions against Jews and partisans. Another point is that there is not a word about Jews or the Holocaust in the book. They were not, are not, and cannot be. The Jews are forsaken, that is why the book leaves a somewhat horrible impression. Considering the fighting of collaborationists with partisans and, therefore, local population, it would have been more than necessary to note their being active or non-active in Jews extermination. Ignoring of the issue is impossible! We cannot find a reason for that. The only mentioning is found in the book in the context of Ukrainian guard units. "Besides Ukrainians Russians, Lithuanians, and other USSR dwellers served in the guard units of concentration camps". The units of "travniks" (stems from the Polish town of Travniki, where they had the military drill) guarded "death camps" and took part in liquidation of the Warsaw ghetto. Another interesting fact is that the author uses the actual word "ghetto", but there is an awkward feeling that understanding of the rest of information is the reader's business. The viewpoint is even stranger, counting that the author even lists the "death camps" realising that his reader is incompetent in the question. And again not a word of explanation. One more odd phrase follows the mentioning of "Muravyov battalion" (former 101 Ukrainian battalion of support police) in context of Holocaust history. In August 1944 it changed sides and supported French Resistance movement. The author writes: "Ironically, many of these "heroes" were participants of mass executions in Babiy Yar and.extermination of Khatyn." Not doubting the knowledge of the facts by the author, putting Babiy Yar and Khatyn together seems very Soviet like. It needs mentioning of the ethnic component. Alongside the mentioned facts (when S.Drobyasko supplies the vast range of very interesting documents) from a report of Russian Army Union on state of affairs in USSR we can read a line or so on attitudes in some units of the Red Army: "the attitude of these units it plain anti-Communist, anti-Jewish, anti-Governmental". Enumeration of such factors was a usual marker of the time, as well as farther anti-Semitic reference: "Yid-commisar, Jewish element". But the author does not comment on these lines, thus creating an impression of unwillingness to consider the issue. On the other hand S.Drobyasko raised an important problem: over a million USSR citizens fought on the side of Germany. Such a figure speaks about many things. In fact it means that the Nazis stated a civil war on the USSR territories. However, it is necessary to emphasise that there is not any attempt to look into humanitarian side of the matter. To look into the fact of extermination of local civil people by the collaborationists.
Eurasian Jewish Year-Book
The third volume of the Eurasian Jewish Year-Book - 5765 (2004-2005) has been recently brought out. Responsible for the edition Leonid Finberg, literary edition of Vyacheslav Likhachev. In the review we will not speak about chapters dedicated to the activities of Eurasian Jewish Congress, Culture, Demography and other. As usually, the main focus will be on the Holocaust studies. This time it is a separate chapter - seemingly because of the 60 anniversary of the end of the War and the Holocaust. We should separately note the speeches of the Ukrainian president Victor Yushenko and the Russian president Vladimir Putin in Oswiencim; they mentioned many important and useful things. P.Polyan presented a work on compensations paid by Germany. The Dialogue-part contains the speech of Joseph Zissels "The Pain of each Nation should be the Pain of All Peoples" on an OCSE conference in Cordoba (Spain). The conference was dedicated to anti-Semitism and other forms of intolerance. Then one can see the works by Segiy Hakkel "Judeo-Christian Dialogue: Orthodox Point of View", and Didye Pollef "Judeo-Christian Relations after Oswiencim from the Catholic Point of View". The chapter on anti-Semitism comprises perfect articles on anti-Semitism in different countries of the world. For example, as far as we understood, in Armenia one of the anti-Semites, head of the "Armenian-Aryan Order" party, was arrested, which shows the civilised level of Armenian law system in comparison to other CIS countries. Say, in Ukraine, despite the governmental disapproval of anti-Semitism, nothing has been done concerning constant and vast anti-Semitic propaganda by MAUP or the outrageous pronouncements by a Verkhovna Rada deputy, O.Tyagnybok.
Sealed Carriage
Jewish Agency for Israel in Moscow and Jerusalem under the support of Claims Conference published a book "Sealed Carriage (stories and poems about the Catastrophe)". Composer and editor of the book Zoya Kopelman. The edition presents the authors, who either survived the Catastrophe or it found a reflection in their creations. Besides the famous Paul Celan, Elie Wiesel, and Vasiliy Grossman we can also find the works by less known in CIS authors, like Nelli Zaks, Moris Jacob, Ezhi Andzheevsky (the only non-Jewish writer in the book, but for Y.Yevtushenko), and Marek Hlasko. Unfortunately, there are no works by Imre Kertes, Yoram Kaniuk; though many of the published authors had been issued before. At the same time the book presents a lot of the authors first time in Russian translation. As it usually happens when the books are published by cost of Claims Conference, the small circulation of 5000 samples is distributed mostly among Sohnut, Israel, and Jewish leaders - the audience quite familiar with the alike works. At the same time the collection gives a vast understanding of the realisation of Shoah, of the Jewish dimension of the Tragedy. Among the most emotional poems is a great poem by Yulia Vinner "To Survive the War on Aryan Documents" about all kinds of anti-Semitic labels following the Jewish people long after the Catastrophe into modern times. There is also a fine translation of Meir Wieseltir by Zoya Kopelman, impressive lines by Dan Pagis and Nelli Zaks, where she speaks of the ability of non-Jewish people to understand the feelings of Jews and Israelis towards anti-Semitism. We really hope that those willing to read the book, will be able to find it.
The Russian Soldiers of Wehrmacht
In Moscow "Yauza" and "EXMO" publishing houses have brought out a book by Kirill Alexandrov "The Russian Soldiers of Wehrmacht" (Heroes or Traitors)". The sub-title points to the main issue of the book, though the notions used seem a bit strange, because such division of the world was popular in the 30-ies years of the last century. Nevertheless, the work itself is extraordinary interesting. One should note the vast interests of the author and deep research into the problem. Namely, consideration of the humanitarian side - study of people and publication of the letters of prisoners-of-war and vlasovers. The pictures of Famine, which stand up from the memoirs and documents, are overwhelming. As an example we can speak about the history of Nikolay Fedorovich Lapin, a Jew by descend (at least so the author claims). He was born into a Jewish family of the exiled socialists-revolutionaries. He was an officer of the Red Army, got captured near Vyazma in second half of October 1941 in position of a senior lieutenant. In second half of 1942 was directed to the courses of Russian Liberation Army (ROA) propagandists. Surrendered to the American army. In 1946 passed on to the Soviet authorities. Was put into Dubrovlag, where he had to stay until 1955. Farther fate unknown. We can only find some information about his sister in Odessa. At the same time the hefty volume does not look into the issues of vlasovers attitude to the "Jewish question". The author gives the list of lectures in Vlasov's headquarters in Dabendorf. One of the lectures is "The Jewry in Russia". K.Alexandrov supplies an interesting fact of Major M. Zykov, who served in ROA army and "was considered a Jew by many vlasovers". It is emphasised that ROA was not anti-Semitic, but no supportive facts are given. ""The Jewish question" was not very important for vlasovers in 1943-1945, which can be proved by critical remarks on Vlasov movement on behalf of the Nazis and the direct content of the Prague manifest 1944".
The book provides detailed history of "Druzhyna" brigade - 1st Russian national regiment of SS
Despite the ignorance of the Holocaust (the term is not mentioned in the book), we must say that the description of Vlasov and Cossack movements is vast. However, the "heroisation" aims of the author are quite transparent. Though there are moments, especially the information about partisans, when the documents plainly show the ambiguity of the war, people changing sides from Germans to partisan movements and their return in USSR etc.
Orthodoxy Anti-Semitism
Moscow Information-Analytical Centre "Sova" has published a book by Alexander Verkhovskoy "Political Orthodoxy. Russian Orthodoxy Nationalists and Fundamentalists, 1995-2001". Though the topic is not directly connected to the Holocaust studies or Ukrainian history, we cannot leave unnoticed the issues of modern anti-Semitism. Besides, the influence of Russian Orthodox Church on Ukraine is quite strong. The author gives a vast picture of Russian nationalists' views on various issues in the society. Special attention is given to anti-Semitism and attitudes to Israel. Unfortunately, the topic as usually comprises the whole set of anti-Semitic labels. Among the most interesting (and perhaps new in anti-Semitism) are quotations from the newspaper "Russkiy Vestnik" (Russian Bulletin) saying the following: "for their purposes the Talmudists use not Islam, but its reprocessed version" Some A.Soluyanov means Vahhabism. The total incoherence of such claims is emphasised by a reference of A.Verkhovskoy that "many Chechen separatists also find the reason of Russian "aggression" in Zionists' intrigues. They often accuse even one another of Zionism". The mentioned facts prove the incredible growth of anti-Semitic views in the world and especially in CIS countries. Program of the "Chernaya Sotnya" (The Black Hundred) requests total banning of "paganism, atheism, and Judaism". Another terrible thing is that some of the organisations call to violence. A.Verkhovskoy comments: "In the "Tsarskiy Oprichnik", "Russkiy Partisan", "Russkaya Volya" one can come across plain and non-ambivalent appeals to kill Negroes, Caucasus dwellers, Jews". The situation becomes even more complicated as in the "Rus Derzhavnaya" not a simple Church-goer, but an archbishop Krasnoyarsky and Yeniseyskiy Antoniy (Cheremisov) makes a pronouncement: "It needs to be mentioned that the Catholic Church now experiences pressure of Judaism through Jew-controlled authorities that absolutely control it". The commentaries are hardly needed. No commentaries are needed as well for our "native" pronouncements. An article of N.Lomakin, (a member of the Union of Orthodox Brethren in Dnepropetrovsk) by name "Where does the Motherland Begin?" reads: "neo-paganism is imposed on us by the very same Zionists".
A.Verkhovskoy believes that the movement of Russian nationalists steadily grows.
At the same time the circulation of the book is only 500 samples. We hope that alike researches will appear in Ukraine.
Precautions of the History of "The Red Century" in the Beginning of XXI
The "ArtEk" publishing house has brought out a new book by a famous philosopher, civil activist Myroslav Popovich. The book is called "The Red Century". The author himself presented the book to Anatoly Podolsky.
In the foreword to the book the philosopher states, that it is not "the history of the "Red Century". It is rather an attempt to write the philosophy of history. "To see the sense of the history of our time" as Myroslav Popovich puts it. In the same foreword the author tries to revise usual for us academic and near-academic technogenic events, change them for humanitarian approach; emphasises his sympathy for the Tragedy of Jewish nation and other genocide. In the same time, turning to the "red" colour of the previous century, M.Popovich points to the history of Ukraine, because our history was rather red, than "gray". Though too much in common these colours havePowerlessness of the humanitarians and other people facing this horrific advance became the topic for the hefty volume.
We have to note the width of approaches and great number of new and interesting facts mentioned in the work. Vast intelligence, references to the fiction literature unveil the author's intention to understand himself and the events taking place around. We want to separately emphasise the choice of photographs - many of them show that "Red Century" from rather interesting sides.
Starting the book from the October revolution in 1917, the author uncovers artificial and false attempts to forget this date, to behave as if Ukraine was only superficially and negatively influenced by it. Indeed, it is necessary to consider our life in context of real influences, without ideological engagement, so often present even in the modern judgements.
Another issue broached from anew in the book is the issue of Jewish pogroms in times of liberty struggle in Ukraine in 1917-1921. The author's pointing at the drawbacks of S.Petliura and other Ukrainian leaders is quite fair. Especially, when M.Popovich writes about their "being in the clouds". Unfortunately, it continues till nowadays. Till today we see no reflections about such "musings" and their consequences in cautious attitude of Jews to Ukrainian national movements.
With Ukrainians, however, this "flying in the clouds" causes either primitive anti-Semitism, or all-embracing philo-Semitism. We believe these musings and anti-practicism still hinder the Ukrainian society. For example, over a year the new "Orange" authorities accept the declarations about xenophobic activities of MAUP. The problem is, that the pronouncements of MAUP are not only anti-Semitic, but also anti-African, anti-Russian, anti-Polish, homophobic etc. - but the authorities take notice only of anti-Jewish pronouncements. I am not sure that other groups of our people did not address the government because of MAUP. It sometimes seems that the authorities consider abstract "Jewry" quite influential in the world and believe that if the Jews are fine, others might be discardedBut back to musing. The issue is, that the thing needed from the government and its officials is not words or declarations, but real action. By the way, S.Petliura did help many Jews. But this, unfortunately, is too little. The question is in disapproving "ourselves", to force anti-Semitism and xenophobia out to the margins of the society. But here at once some odd psychological effect takes place. Representatives of Ukrainian movement claim it is too weak to lose the "radicals". The simple idea that this movement must be enforced through assistance of national minorities as anywhere in the civilised world does not seem to come to minds of these national leaders. We hope that this drawback is of the passing character.
The book deserves careful discussion, we believe it will take place in the Ukrainian society soon.
Story of a German. Memoirs 1914-1933
VTNL-Classics publishing house (Lviv) under the support of Goethe Institute published the book by Sebastian Gaffner "Story of a German. Memoirs 1914-1933" (translation by Roman Dubasevich). A book by the famous German historian, publisher, journalist is never an ordinary event. In 2000 - very recently - it was issued in German. Gaffner (true name Raymond Pretsel) did not want to publish his pre-war memories until he was alive. But the period he considers is extremely significant for realisation of the farther events, including the "final solution of the Jewish problem". It is the very beginning of the nazi movement, which stemmed from political and economical instability and (from Gaffner's opinion) from the habit to solve the problems by violence and appearance of various political-sport organisations. An interesting thought by the author, "Not a single nation of the world faced what Germans faced in 1923. All survived the war, the majority survived revolutions, social crises, strikes, property reallocation, inflation. But no-one faced that fantastically grotesque unity of everything aforementioned at once, as it happened in 1923 in Germany It was then that the basis for future Nazism "benefits" appeared: cold craziness; respectless, breakless, blind determination; readiness to resort to irrational"
It is impossible to enumerate all the interesting thoughts posed by Gaffner in his memoirs about Nazism and anti-Semitism. He left Germany before World Ward II to fight against Nazism with the English. Such decisions of many Germans refute different pseudo-scholarly claims that Germany never had Resistance movement. We hope that the book by S.Gaffner will come in handy to many specialists and ordinary readers for better understanding and caution against Nazism and extreme left wings, which is also sharply critisised by Gaffner. "Masses, which in total mess got used to numerous sensations, weakened and wavered under the influence of their final prejudice, pedantically practice their orthodox faith in the miraculous powers of the almighty St. Marx and uniqueness and solitude of the prophesied way" - the quotation, we believe, concerning many of the modern problems.
"Shoah in Lviv"
National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lviv Academic Library after V.Stephanyk brought out a book of memoirs by Yevgen Nakonechniy "Shoah in Lviv". It needs to be separately noted, that such memoirs, unfortunately, do not appear in Ukraine very often. Especially it concerns the events of the Holocaust. Finally, Ukraine got some candid literature on this account. It is still more interesting, because the author was about 12-14 years old then (there are no exact data in the book). At the same time we notice (not through author's blame, but rather because of discrepancy by the National Academy of Sciences), some odd and non-academic definitions.
On the first pages of the book we observe some remarks about "inaccuracy" of the term "Holocaust" (for some reason non-capitalised as any common name). Of course, the author has the right to think so, especially because the term "Shoah" can be fully used as well. But the public type of the work should also be considered - it must then need some kind of academic foreword or comments. Why they are missing is unknown to us. It is noteworthy that the term "Holocaust" is widely used in the historiography of Europe, America, and the world, whereas term "Shoah" is more characteristic of Israel research.
The book has reproaches towards S. Wiesental (luckily, he will never hear them) and towards E.Jones. There are some descriptions of how "Jews" welcomed the Red Army in Lviv in 1939. As far as we know, it is clear that some Jews did greet the Soviets, but it were not only Jews who did so. The book also contains some strange statistics about the Jewish origins of Lviv intelligensia - its sources remain unknown to us. There are also some memories about emergence of matza in Lviv shops of 1940, which "the Jews rushed to buy". And the words of some Pole, who consequently drew a conclusion about "the Jewish state USSR". The following paragraph says: "same thoughts spread among the common Lviv dwellers, especially in Polish surrounding. They were sounded in times of the Catastrophe as well." Absolutely illogic is the story about a Pole Vladek Zhelyazny, who for some reason was freed from the soviet prison by the guards and then tried through the author's father to free his friends, dying in the same prison from the hands of the Soviet soldiers. The role of E..Nakonechniy's father in the OUN is unclear. Why did V.Zhelyazny address him and no-one else? It is also misty why the father decided that the criminal was cowardly and why a cowardly criminal couldn't be used for the publicity or at least people from OUN to get to know about the conditions in the Soviet prisons Here again we want to stress the necessity of special commentaries, which are unfortunately missing.
Then comes rather "invented" claim by the author that "there were no Ukrainian party propagating anti-Semitism, including OUN". We totally agree that the majority of works stating absolutely contrary views and claiming all Ukrainian parties anti-Semitic are nothing but exaggeration. But if the author wanted to prove the contrary, he had to supply some serious evidence.
Another strange entry from the book reveals that "brats" taking part in Lviv pogrom were Polish-speaking. Then author adds still more: "even today Lviv's criminal world is not Ukrainian-speaking, just as the criminal world of Donetsk, Kharkiv or Odessa. It can be called Ukrainian only conventionally". We believe that such non-balanced pronouncements first of all divide Ukraine, secondly raise a tense attitude to Ukrainian citizenship. If Russian-speaking or Polish-speaking citizens of Ukraine still cannot be treated as Ukrainians, then should they consider Ukraine just a temporary shelter? Temporary place of dwelling?
Still other odd fragment is when author "craftily confirmed" that a Jew Gelka looked Jewish when she asked him. Author adds that "she looked typically Jewish", while the question was asked before the girl went out to the street, the last time, as far as we understood from the farther text. The author doesn't feel that the situation was not comic at all to "craftily" confirm. E.Nakonechniy was only 12 years old then and it is possible that he did not understand the situation, but nowadays such blindness seems strange.
Especially weird is the end of the memoirs when the author gives the words of a German soldier, who condemns SS-men and Gestapo-men for killing the Jews. The words are: "That is why Germany loses the warThat is whythe war is lost!" meaning that extermination of Jews brought on "the unity of all the world against us". Not doubting the possibility of such conclusion for Germans, we still believe that the book dedicated to Shoah cannot be ended like this. It seems that the author takes interest in the problems of Germans and not Jews, and Ukrainians then and today.
In the beginning the author writes: " I fully understand that from the Jewish circles I may get accusations of anti-Semitism, and from my fellows - in Philosemitism" It all seems to stem from too publicist, too ideological approach; from some national or other schemes, from something, which author clearly puts in the following words: "Totalitarian regime not only creates evil, but stales human souls"
" Holocaust in Ukraine in Regional and Universal Dimension"
Freshly published are the materials of the International Scholarly Conference "Holocaust in Ukraine in Regional and Universal Dimensions", conducted in Lviv in 2003. The collection of scholarly works was issued by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, National University "Lviv Polytechnics", Institute for Humanitarian and Social Sciences, Regional Scientific-educational Centre on Holocaust Studies under the support of International Centre 'Holocaust" after Dr. A.Schwartz. Editor-in-chief - professor, Ph.D. R.Y.Mirskiy.
The book is undoubtedly a worthy contribution into Holocaust Studies. Especially thoroughful was the programme of the conference, which at the end covered the topic " Culture and Art of Galitsia and the Holocaust". This chapter contains information about the fates of Galitsian artists, architects, who perished in the Holocaust, therefore describing the new narrative concerning not only the death of people, but also significant cultural losses of Galitsia and the world.
On the other hand, certain part of the materials printed in the collection cannot be considered by any means scholarly because of the publicist style of the presentation, disconcern of the Holocaust, when authors mention the topic, but speak about the Tuzla Island or terrorism in the modern world. Some works are written in such arrogant, big-headed, pseudo-scholarly style that they resemble works on marxism-leninism of the 70s of the previous century, which were obviously lacking interesting thoughts and often sense.
We must also point out absolutely non-academic sentences by Mr. N.Abramovich (Chernivtsi), who writes, "Germany was the only country without any Resistance movement". We leave this nonsense on the author's conscience.
However, we feel it necessary to emphasise really interesting materials by Y.Tabak (Moscow), L.Matsih (Kyiv), V.Likhachev (Kyiv).
Mr. L. Matsih as usually states "uncommon knowledge" facts like public protest of Bernard Lustenberg after the Kristallnacht pogrom; pronouncement by Berlin bishop Konrad von Preising and especially important for Holocaust studies fact that Vatican radio was the first in the world to unveil the scales of Nazi crimes in Poland in 1940(!). Moreover, the author proves that this radio-pronouncement was made by the order of Pope Pij XII. Another noteworthy thought is that "Catholic Church under the rule of Pij XII saved more Jews from the Holocaust than any other civil organisation, ethnic or religious community"
Other interesting works belong to Ms. C.Bahanova and Mr. K.Bahanov and deal with pedagogic issues.
Arthur Fredekind
Tolerance: Before and Now
On September 23-25th Ukrainian Centre for Holocaust Studies, together with the State Committee of Ukraine on Nationalities and Migrations, Babiy Yar Civic Commemoration Committee and Ukrainian-American Bureau on Protection of Human Rights conducted a scholarly seminar "Issues of Interethnic Tolerance in Ukraine: Historical Retrospective and Modern Conditions".
Seminar began in Kyiv-Mohyla academy, where the Institute for Jewish Studies, Centre for European Humanitarian Research, Swedish Institute held a seminar dedicated to the opening of the exhibition "Raoul Wallenberg: One Man Can Make a Difference". Students of Ukrainian Universities and university teachers listened to a presentation of Paul Levine (Ph.D. Philosophy, Holocaust history teacher in Uppsala University, one of the authors of the famous book "Tell your Children about It") "The Holocaust in Europe and Ukraine in the Eyes of Western Historians". Paul Levine emphasised some interesting theses about the persecutions by Soviet authorities and their influence on the Holocaust in Ukraine. "Violence accustomed Ukrainian people to deportations and killing". At the same time Dr. Levine believes that collaboration was also influenced by the anti-Semitic traditions existing in the Ukrainian society. Dr. Anatoly Podolsky in his speech "The Holocaust in Modern Ukrainian Historiography" uncovered the issues of the modern Ukrainian historiography about the Holocaust. He believes that there is still some prejudice towards Holocaust studies in the modern Ukrainian society. Mostly they concern the ethnic background of the researcher, which is often thought a weighty argument for and against studies.
V. Hrynevich attempted to deny this odd (for Europeans) fact by claiming there is no "official and non-official" historical science. At the same time the report by Y.Korogodsky stating there are still no accurate documents and figures on the number of Babiy Yar victims speaks for itself. It means that historical studies in Ukraine are just at their beginnings.
Discussion concerning the issues of Tolerance in Ukraine then continued in Pusha-Voditsa (near Kyiv) and visiting of the exhibition "Raoul Wallenberg: One Man Can Make a Difference" enhanced it greatly. Saving of the Hungarian Jews by a Swede and then his disappearance in Soviet Gulag is a vivid example of Nazi and Soviet intolerance, which brought about killing of millions of people. In Pusha-Voditsa Semen Gluzman, a famous activist and psychiatrist joined the seminar. His speech about "Human Rights in the Modern Ukraine" aroused great interest. It is necessary to note that modern state of Human Rights in Ukraine did not change much since the period of L.Kuchma. Unfortunately, swapping officials from one place to another can hardly be considered a serious reform - and it is strange that the authorities do not realise this, or pretend not to realise. Moreover, Mr. Gluzman spoke a lot about absence of culture - as behaviour and as culture of good-hearted attitude to other citizens.
Further reports by students were held on a very high level. They tried to present the truth and not to promote different stereotypes, which is not an easy task. Natalia Tchermoshentseva (Kherson) told the participants about the state of inter-ethnic and inter-confessional relations in Kherson region. It was interesting to get to know about the only Swedish Ukrainian Lutheran church in the region, about expansion of Greek-catholic communities and attitudes towards refugees from Caucasus and Middle Asia.
All in all students' presentations were incredibly informative and sincere. The Orange it seems has influenced people and comparing the previous and the recent reports we must note that the latter have become much more outspoken. Especially in such a tense sphere as inter-ethnic relations. Anna Abakunova (Dnipropetrovsk) spoke about rather high level of xenophobia in a secondary school of her city, where the upper secondary pupils showed all the range of hostile attitudes towards the national minorities. Same problem was risen by Anna Zaytseva (Lviv), who told the participants about the issues of the inter-ethnic dialogue in Galitsia. A teacher from Bila Tserkva Svitlana Zanko reported about the conflict in the Jewish school, when intolerant and non-cultural behaviour of the local rabbi brought about true struggle. Luckily, the conflict did not go as far as inter-community opposition.
The speech of Anatoly Podolsky "Modern Ukrainian Anti-Semitism: Banality or Peculiarity?" besides uncovering the modern Ukrainian anti-Semitism issues emphasises that generally anti-Semites of the beg. XXI century direct their main blows at Jewish national movement - Zionism and the state of Israel, using primitive anti-Zionist mottoes of the 70s of XX century. Vast presentations by Vitalii Nachmanovich "Science and Society: Responsibility of a Historian" and Arthur Fredekind "Minorities in Germany and Ukraine - Comparative Analysis" enhanced active discussions. The conclusion of those discussions is simple - a historian must interfere with the modern issues of the society, giving more attention to the WIDER concept of history perception. Moreover, they must put special emphasis on humane aspect for promotion of empathy among people.
Trainings done by teachers from "Nova Doba" Association were really welcomed by the participants of the seminar. Polina Verbitska "Democratic Values in the Educational Process of the Modern Ukraine" and Iryna Kostuik "School Education as Means of Creation and Overcoming Stereotypes" (both were representatives from Lviv) suggested discussions of stereotypes and democracy and the very process of teaching.
There were also some discussions concerning purely historical problems. Konstantin Stifurak (Vinnitsa) spoke about "Jewish Pogroms and Role of S.Petliura: New Approaches", Natalia Kovtun (Kyiv) about "Anti-Semitism in Ukraine", Illya Mebvinskiy (Kyiv) about "The Topic of the Holocaust in Concepts of Modern Russian Anti-Semites"
It is obvious that the Jewish topic dominated, but it is necessary to note that anti-Semitism is always an indicator of attitudes towards others as well. Unfortunately, in our country still exists that ominous restless anti-Semitic discourse by MAUP. Ignorance of and often indifference from our authorities and mass media, our citizens brings about further existence of this vast net of absolutely barbaric literature. We heard promises to stop this from the new authorities in May, but there is still no result visible or invisible. By no means are we apt to fighting, bringing end, and refuting the sick libel spread by MAUP's newspapers and magazines. But the state must at least fine them for it. Then the hating will start writing more cautiously. The constant general accusations in the media (of Russians, Ukrainians, Americans, Jews, Germans, Martians) now so much popular in Ukraine must fade into the Soviet past.
European approach to the problems mentioned by some of the participants, namely by a Swedish teacher Mikael Enoksson (who visited the seminar and was happy to share experience), is obvious from the letter of a German V. Raveling to French philosopher of Russian-Jewish descend V. Yankelevich, "My conscience is not lightI feel shame, and responsibility, and mourn, and even protest I suffer from Germany, though I hardly realise what it is"
Feeling of responsibility for man's words and actions as well as for states' words and actions gives birth to the Tolerance level of the modern civilised world (though realising it is far from ideal conditions, especially today).

Arthur Fredekind,
Research associate of
Ukrainian Centre for Holocaust Studies
Story of a German. Memoirs 1914-1933
VTNL-Classics publishing house (Lviv) under the support of Goethe Institute published the book by Sebastian Gaffner "Story of a German. Memoirs 1914-1933" (translation by Roman Dubasevich). A book by the famous German historian, publisher, journalist is never an ordinary event. In 2000 - very recently - it was issued in German. Gaffner (true name Raymond Pretsel) did not want to publish his pre-war memories until he was alive. But the period he considers is extremely significant for realisation of the farther events, including the "final solution of the Jewish problem". It is the very beginning of the nazi movement, which stemmed from political and economical instability and (from Gaffner's opinion) from the habit to solve the problems by violence and appearance of various political-sport organisations. An interesting thought by the author, "Not a single nation of the world faced what Germans faced in 1923. All survived the war, the majority survived revolutions, social crises, strikes, property reallocation, inflation. But no-one faced that fantastically grotesque unity of everything aforementioned at once, as it happened in 1923 in Germany It was then that the basis for future Nazism "benefits" appeared: cold craziness; respectless, breakless, blind determination; readiness to resort to irrational"
It is impossible to enumerate all the interesting thoughts posed by Gaffner in his memoirs about Nazism and anti-Semitism. He left Germany before World Ward II to fight against Nazism with the English. Such decisions of many Germans refute different pseudo-scholarly claims that Germany never had Resistance movement. We hope that the book by S.Gaffner will come in handy to many specialists and ordinary readers for better understanding and caution against Nazism and extreme left wings, which is also sharply critisised by Gaffner. "Masses, which in total mess got used to numerous sensations, weakened and wavered under the influence of their final prejudice, pedantically practice their orthodox faith in the miraculous powers of the almighty St. Marx and uniqueness and solitude of the prophesied way" - the quotation, we believe, concerning many of the modern problems.
Collection of Scholarly Works of the Conference "Jewish Ethnic Studies and Collections"
Issued by Institute for Jewish Studies and National Library of Ukraine after V.Vernadskiy is the collection of Scholarly Works of the Conference "Jewish Ethnic Studies and Collections" (edited by L.Finberg). Surely, a part of the works is dedicated to the history of the Holocaust. These are presentation of V.Venediktova (Lviv) about Lviv ghetto; S.Matveeva (Odessa) "About the Orphanages of Odessa in Times of Nazi-Fascist Occupation" - containing incredible facts about saving of the Jewish children by orphanage director Bauman-Artsibasheva; O. Hrynevich "Sokoly, Voznesensk - Kossak-Jewish City"; G.Glembotskaya about the fate of artist Emil Kunke, who perished in Lviv ghetto; B.Kotlerman (Israel) "Ukrainian Performances of Birobidzhan GOSET (1940) in the Light of Western Territories Annexation", which is especially noteworthy. First of all the latter presentation tell us about the propaganda role of Birobidzhan Theatre in Hotin - where it was invited by the Red Army just after its entering Bukovina. Reaction of the actors and local Jews is very interesting. Secondly, it gives the facts of plans concerning resettlement of westlands Jews to Birobidzhan. The figures differ - Soviet sources write about 20 thousand families, American - about 200 thousand families! Such plans, to our mind, are important in the context of Holocaust history.
We should also separately note the speech by O.Lagutenko (Kiev) "Reality of Mythology in Graphics of Bruno Schultz", unveiling the work of the brilliant B.Schultz, who fell victim to the Holocaust.

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